Diagnosis of pancreatitis, its methods. Symptoms and treatment of the disease

Inflammation of the pancreas is unpleasant anda dangerous state. In medicine, it is called pancreatitis. With this disease, the enzymes produced in the pancreas remain in it, begin to destroy its tissues. Treatment should be done in a timely manner. Otherwise, the inflammation becomes chronic. How are the acute forms of the disease manifested? How is differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis carried out? In these matters, it is necessary to understand in detail.

The essence of the disease

The pancreas is a small but important organdigestive system. It lies behind the stomach and extends from the duodenum to the spleen. The pancreas has a lobed structure. In each lobule there is a duct. In the organ, all ducts connect and form the main pancreatic duct. There is also a second (additional) duct. Each of them empties into the duodenum.

Iron in the human body performs two functions:

  1. Exocrine (exocrine). The juice that is released from the gland into the duodenum contains enzymes. They participate in the digestion of protein, carbohydrate and fatty foods.
  2. Endocrine (intrasecretory). The pancreas secretes polypeptide hormones into the blood. They regulate the metabolic processes that take place in the body.

With inflammation of the pancreasare violated. This is confirmed by the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The secret is not secreted from the organ into the duodenum. In this regard, the process of self-digestion of the gland sites begins. Part of the enzymes and toxins are discharged into the blood vessels, it spreads throughout the body and damages other organs (liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and even the brain).

diagnosis of pancreatitis

The disease occurs in people for various reasons. Statistics show that 50% of people suffer from pancreatic inflammation due to alcohol abuse. In 20% of cases, diagnosis of pancreatitis in adults shows that the disease develops because of cholelithiasis. Other causes of inflammation of the pancreas include:

  • infectious, viral and parasitic diseases;
  • fungal lesions;
  • trauma and poisoning;
  • endoscopic manipulations and operations.

Classification of pancreatitis

By the nature of the course of the disease can beacute (OP) and chronic (CP). The first form of the disease is an inflammatory process that takes place in the pancreas and passes over to other tissues and organs. The disease develops suddenly because of the intake of alcohol, spicy or fatty foods. In some cases, the onset of the disease is associated with eating large amounts of food after prolonged starvation.

Acute pancreatitis specialists are classified as follows:

  1. Acute severe pancreatitis. With this form, the internal organs do not function properly. Diff. Diagnosis of pancreatitis reveals serious disorders.
  2. A sharp, light form. With this type of disease, the functions of the organs are disrupted minimally.
  3. Acute severe pancreatitis complicated by parapancreatic infiltrate, peritonitis, purulent abscesses, sepsis, bleeding.

Chronic pancreatitis occurs in people after acute acute inflammation of the pancreas. Depending on the degree of severity, experts identify:

  1. Heavy form. Pancreatitis is characterized by a continuous-recurrent course. The periods of remission are rare and short-lived.
  2. The course of the disease is of moderate severity. Exacerbations with inflammation of the pancreas occur 3-4 times a year. Pain abdominal syndrome is quite long.
  3. Easy course of the disease. Exacerbations are short and rare. They occur 1-2 times a year.

Signs of acute inflammation

Pain in the epigastric region is a symptom,indicating acute pancreatitis. Differential diagnosis in the presence of this symptom is carried out immediately, because the pain is often so strong that people can not lie and sit still. Only after conducting the diagnosis and making an accurate diagnosis, specialists can take any measures to alleviate the condition of patients.

symptoms and diagnosis of pancreatitis

Another frequent sign of acute inflammationThe pancreas is a vomiting, in most cases being multiple. It does not bring relief to sick people. Because of their vomiting, their condition only worsens. Other symptoms of acute pancreatitis include:

  • pallor of the skin, acrocyanosis (purchase of cyanotic stain skin);
  • bloating;
  • delay of gases, stools;
  • sharp weakness.

Symptoms of Chronic Pancreatitis

Characteristics characteristic of CP are different during periodsexacerbations and remissions. They depend on a number of factors: the stage, the clinical form of the course of the disease. Despite this, several main symptoms of chronic pancreatitis can be distinguished:

  1. Indigestion. It is manifested by an increase in the volume and frequency of the stool. Kala with chronic pancreatitis is characterized by a grayish color and fetid odor. It often contains remains of food that have not been digested. The above symptoms are caused by a decrease in the mass of the functioning exocrine parenchyma and a violation of secretion of the secretion of the gland in the duodenum.
  2. Weakness, trembling in the whole body, hunger, cramps, involuntary defecation and urination, loss of consciousness. These symptoms of HP are associated with a violation of the intrasecretory function of the pancreas.
  3. Pain abdominal syndrome. The pain does not have a clear localization. It can occur in the middle or upper abdomen and assume a shingling character. In some cases, pain is not observed.

Diagnosis of acute pancreatitis

To confirm the diagnosis, doctors appoint theirpatients examination. It includes the diagnosis of pancreatitis, blood tests performed to determine the amount of enzymes produced in the pancreas. The test for the content of amylase in serum is widespread. The level of this enzyme exceeds the norm several times in those people who have acute pancreatitis.

diagnosis of pancreatitis blood tests

Methods of diagnosis include also the study of urine. Based on the results of the analysis, the patients are identified:

  • proteinuria (protein content in urine);
  • microhematuria (the presence of blood in the urine in excess of the physiological norm);
  • cylindruria (appearance in the urine of cylindrical bodies formed from blood cells, coagulated protein, epithelium of renal tubules).

A reliable method of diagnosing acutepancreatitis is a computed tomography (CT) scan. It allows you to get an image of the pancreas, surrounding tissues and internal organs, identify complications of the disease, assess the scale and nature of pancreatic damage in pancreatic necrosis.

Diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis candue to laparoscopy. With her help doctors with a high degree of reliability determine the form of the disease, identify and eliminate some complications of the disease.

The most common, informative, simpleand a safe method of detecting the disease - ultrasound diagnosis of acute pancreatitis (ultrasound). When it is carried out, the sizes, contours, shape, internal structure, echogenicity of the pancreas, the condition of the duct system are evaluated.

ultrasound diagnosis of acute pancreatitis

Diagnosis of the chronic form

Diagnosis of pancreatitis in adults includesyourself in the first place ultrasound and CT. Patients are also assigned endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. This method of investigation is a combination of endoscopy with fluoroscopic research.

Diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis alsoincludes the definition of exocrine pancreatic function. It is with this goal in mind that specialists conduct a coprogram - a laboratory study that allows you to find the remains of undigested food in the stool.

The exocrine function of the pancreas is alsocan be assessed with C-respiratory tests. Their main advantage is non-invasiveness (no need to violate the integrity of the natural external barriers of the body). Such a diagnosis of pancreatitis also makes it possible to determine the effectiveness of substitution enzyme therapy.

Methods for treating acute pancreatitis

If symptoms occur that indicate the development of OP, the patient should be provided with pre-hospital care:

  • prohibit the intake of food and drink for several days;
  • Apply on the epigastric area a hot water bottle with cold water or an ice pack;
  • give antispasmodics (thanks to the use of "No-shpy" or "Papaverine" will reduce the production of enzymes).

Diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis

After first aid is neededimmediately call a doctor. A person must be hospitalized in a hospital. The hospital immediately carries out ultrasound diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. After establishing an accurate diagnosis, analgesics ("Baralgin", "Analgin") are prescribed to suppress pain.

Solutions also use amino acidsand glucose. They fill the plastic and energy needs of the human body. Antibiotics are prescribed. These drugs are necessary for the treatment and prevention of purulent complications.

A few days after starting treatment ina thin tube is installed in the small intestine. It is necessary for the application of the method of enteral nutrition. When the bowel function is restored, the patient is allowed to eat naturally. The diet should consist of cereals, boiled vegetables, compotes.

Conservative treatment in 87% of cases issuccessful. The remaining 13% of patients need surgery. It is carried out when the diagnosis of pancreatitis reveals serious complications. The goals of surgical treatment are as follows:

  1. Reduction of endotoxicosis. To do this, draining and decompression of the bile ducts, drainage and sanitation of the abdominal cavity are prescribed. During the operation, enzymes, toxins and other biologically active substances are excreted from the body.
  2. Treatment of infectious and necrotic complicationspancreatic necrosis (abscesses, fistulas, cysts, peritonitis). To perform this task, specialists perform an autopsy and drainage of postnecrotic, purulent cavities, resection and sequestrectomy of the pancreas.

Treatment of chronic inflammation

If the diagnosis of pancreatitis revealed chronicform of the disease, the patients can be assigned various medications: enzyme preparations based on pancreatin (Mezim, Festal, Creon), antibiotics (Abaktal, Amoksiklav, Sumamed), etc. In some cases (for example, when a pseudocyst is formed) requires minimally invasive (percutaneous) drainage or surgical intervention.

diagnosis of pancreatitis in adults

An important role is played by nutrition. When the disease is aggravated on the 1-2-th day, the sick person is forbidden to eat anything. You can only drink liquid (1-1.5 liters per day): weak tea, alkaline mineral water without gas, broth of wild rose (1-2 cups). On the second or third day it is allowed to eat. Admissible mucous soups, liquid mashed dairy cats, vegetable purees, fruit juice jelly.

During the periods of remission, the following tips should be adhered to:

  1. Prepare the food for a couple, in a grated kind or bake in the oven. Exclude fat in its pure form from the diet and limit table salt to 6 g per day.
  2. Take small meals 5-6 times a day. Recommended temperature of hot dishes - not higher than 57-62 degrees, cold - not less than 15-17 degrees.
  3. Exclude from the diet sour, sharp, spicy andcanned products, peas and beans, mushrooms, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, kvass, acidic fruit juices, bakery products. Cream and sour cream are allowed in small quantities in dishes.

Nontraditional methods of treatment

In acute form of inflammation of the pancreasthe only correct solution is to consult a doctor. Experiment with folk remedies with this type of disease is not worth it. If the symptoms and diagnosis of pancreatitis indicate a chronic form of the disease, then you can try the treatment methods offered by alternative medicine.

The positive effect in most cases givesphytotherapy. The use of herbal remedies can significantly improve the condition of people suffering from chronic pancreatitis. Here is the recipe for a traditional medicine:

  • mix in equal parts corn stigmas, chamomile flowers and marigold, plantain leaves and mint grass;
  • take 1 tsp. from the mixture and pour 2 cups of boiling water;
  • put the broth in a water bath for 15 minutes;
  • ready to insist for 45 minutes and strain.

The broth is recommended to drink three times a day for 15 minutes before eating 0.4 cups of water, previously diluted with warm water to the volume of the glass. Store the product in the refrigerator for up to 5 days.

pancreatitis clinic diagnosis treatment

Prevention of pancreatitis

It is possible to prevent the development of pancreatitis. First of all, you need to monitor your health. Some diseases of the bile duct and gall bladder, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract provoke the inflammation of the pancreas. If your state of health worsens and suspicious symptoms appear, you should immediately consult a doctor, take the necessary tests and undergo an appointment.

Another important preventive measure isdecrease in the use of alcohol. Even absolutely healthy people are advised not to drink alcoholic beverages in large quantities. With diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, alcohol should be abandoned altogether.

In conclusion, it should be noted that pancreatitis(clinic, diagnosis, treatment of this disease) is an actual medical topic. If symptoms appear that indicate inflammation of the pancreas, you should consult a doctor. A neglected disease can lead to serious complications that threaten life.

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