Intramuscular injection is the mostwidespread and easiest way to administer drugs. However, if performed incorrectly, complications of intramuscular injections may occur, which can be avoided if the manipulation is performed correctly.
Careful preparation is necessary before the injection. It not only makes it possible to correctly inject, but also reduces the risk of complications. To begin it is necessary with the theoretical skills, allowing to put intramuscular injections. How correctly to do an injection in the buttock and in the thigh? For convenience, all manipulation is conditionally divided into stages.
Step 1. Preparation of equipment for the injection is being prepared. Prepare a syringe, medicines, alcohol and 4 cotton balls or disposable alcohol wipes. It will be necessary to have a container in which the cotton wool and syringe will be placed before and after the injection.
Step 2. Disinfection of the ampoule and a set of medicines are carried out. Take the ampoule with the medicine and carefully read the inscription, check the volume, dosage, expiration date. Then take alcoholic napkin and it wipes the ampoule at the point of dissection. Next, the medicine is taken. During this, it must be ensured that the needle does not touch the walls of the ampoule. After removing the needle from the ampoule, a cap is put on it.
Step 3. Take an alcohol napkin, and it processes the injection site, the direction from the center to the periphery. Then another napkin is taken, another treatment is done for the injection site, but smaller diameter. This is necessary in order to avoid complications of intramuscular injections in the form of inflammation.
Step 4. Take a syringe, raise the needle up and, without removing the cap, air is released from it. Then the cap is removed and a sharp movement, at a right angle, is the injection. Drugs are injected slowly, with the same amount of pressure on the plunger of the syringe.
Stage 5. After administration of the drug, the needle is sharply removed, an alcoholic napkin is applied to the injection site.
To avoid complications, it is not enough to know how exactly intramuscular injections are done, how to properly do it in the thigh, buttock - this is no less important.
To perform an injection in the buttock, you must "divide" it into four squares. The injection is performed in the upper outer square.
For injection into the hip, the front surface of the thigh is also divided into four parts. The injection is done in the outer upper corner.
If the procedure is not properly performed, there are various complications of intramuscular injection.
The signs of pathology are the presence of a sealand severe soreness of the injection site. Infiltrates occur due to a violation of the method of drug administration, when using underheated oil solutions, as well as with multiple injections in the same place.
In order not to infiltrate, it is necessary to carefully select the site for injection, alternate the buttocks, and monitor the temperature of the drugs administered and perform the correct manipulation.
If there were complications of intramuscular injectionsin the form of infiltration, you should attach a warmer to the sore spot or make a warming compress. Iodine mesh helps to accelerate the resorption of the compaction.
If a violation of the rules of asepsis appears abscess. This is a purulent inflammation that has a clear boundary. Signs of the pathology are pain, redness of the skin above the abscess with a clear border, as well as an increase in body temperature.
To avoid the appearance of an abscess, you must follow the rules of asepsis. However, in cases where a complication has arisen, surgical treatment is prescribed by opening and draining the cavity.
In rare cases, post-injection complications withintramuscular injections can be caused by a broken needle. This is due to a strong muscle spasm during the procedure, because of a bad needle, and also because of the insertion of the needle to the cannula itself. To avoid breakage of the needle, it is introduced into the tissue to a depth of no more than 2/3 of its length. During the procedure, the patient must lie down.
If the needle breaks, use tweezers to remove it. There are cases when the chip goes too deep into the tissue and it can not be reached. In this case, surgical removal is performed.
Still possible complications with intramuscularinjections are air and oil embolism. Signs of pathology are similar. During the procedure, oil or air enters the vessel and reaches the pulmonary vessels with blood flow. The result is suffocation, leading to the death of the patient.
Oily embolism arises from the ingress of solution into the vessel with intramuscular injection. To avoid this, during injection, you should inject the solution in a two-step method.
Avoidance of air embolism helps to comply with the rules for the introduction of drugs in / m, namely - carefully displace air from the syringe.
If the injection site is incorrectly chosen or, whenthe needle passes next to the nerve trunk, there may be neuritis or paralysis of the limb. To prevent this from happening, you need to carefully choose the places for injection.
Inaccurate implementation of intramuscular injection can provoke the appearance of a hematoma. Prevention of education is the use of acute injection needles for im injection and compliance with manipulation techniques.
Treatment of complications of intramuscular injections in the form ofhematoma occurs by applying an alcohol compress to the site of injection. To accelerate the resolution of the hematoma, it is possible to apply various ointments recommended by the attending physician.
When performing intramuscular injection, it is necessary not only to know the theory of manipulation itself, but also to be able to apply the knowledge gained in practice. Observance of all norms will avoid complications.</ p>>