The longest and largest segment of the humanThe skeleton is the femur. It differs physiological curves, therefore it has a saber-like shape. Both ends of the segment take part in the formation of large joints - the hip and knee.
The upper (proximal) edge is represented by the head of the bone. In the acetabulum of the pelvis, its rotation occurs.
The lower (distal) bone margin is represented as two condyles covered with hyaline cartilage. They take part in the formation of the knee joint.
Along the entire length of the bone, capsule-tendon formations and various muscles are attached.
Fracture of the hip may occur on any sitesegment. After reaching a certain age (usually pension), the injuries of the proximal (upper) department are more likely. This is due to the deterioration of the trophism (nutrition) of the bone tissue of this site.
Fracture of the femur may be fragmentary, comminuted, transverse, oblique, multi-lobed, spiral.
Depending on the location, violations are distinguishedbone integrity of the head or neck. Fracture of the hip may be excessive. Such trauma, as a rule, is typical for people in old age.
Fracture of the femur in the diaphysis (body) and the distal end (condyle) occurs as a result of increased kinetic energy, which is directed at any of these sites.
Symptoms of bone integrity disorders depend ondegree of damage. Injury of the proximal margin (upper) is accompanied by deformation in the region of the hip joint, edema. In this case, the lower limb, as a rule, is rotated outward and brought inside. Performing minor movements provokes sudden sudden pain in the hip joint. The reference function is absent.
When injuring the proximal margin and diaphysisthere is deformation, puffiness. Fracture of the femur with displacement may be characterized by pathological mobility of the fragments. One of the serious complications of breach of bone integrity is a profuse hemorrhage into the soft tissue. Fractures of any segment are accompanied by a defeat of the supporting function of the lower limb.
Using a complex of individualClinico-diagnostic data makes it possible to determine the most exact violation of bone integrity. The main instrumental method in the study is radiography. At the same time, taking into account the development of technologies in the field of medicine, the use of computed tomography in diagnosing makes it possible to reveal with the greatest accuracy the complexity and degree of damage.
Fracture of the hip. Treatment
Today, the main therapeutic method is surgical intervention. It is aimed at restoring the patient as soon as possible.
In cases of hip fractures, endoprosthetics are most often used. Timely intervention allows to prevent severe, rapidly developing complications.
When traumatizing the stern area, bothUsually, metallosteosynthesis is used. The use of special constructions allows fixing bone fragments, thus ensuring their fusion (consolidation).
With fractures of the body (diaphysis), the choice of the operative method depends on the type of injury. Individually, the use of intraosseous and hepatic fixation is determined.
It should be noted that the main tasktraumatologist at the same time - using the operative method of treatment, to achieve the most accurate coincidence of bone fragments and restoring the motor function of the limb.</ p>>