For several millennia, ceramic tiles were manufactured according to the classical technology, which assumed the use of the following materials:
The mixture after molding was exposedhigh temperature. Modern ceramic tiles, the density of which will be mentioned below, is a product made of a mixture of quartz sand, clay, as well as other ingredients, pressed and fired during production. You can subdivide this finishing material into the following varieties:
To this day laying tiles on walls and floorscontinues to be the most practical and convenient way of decorating rooms. This decoration is traditional for the kitchen and bathroom, and in the interior of the living rooms ceramics are increasingly included, which can be found in the living rooms and bedrooms. Tiles are also used for exterior wall cladding, as well as for the decoration of public buildings.
Ceramic tiles, the GOST of which provides for compliance with the rules of production technology, is divided into several main groups, among them it should be noted:
As for ceramic granite orporcelain stoneware, it is a product that is manufactured according to one of the new technologies. It can be said that ceramic granite acts as the highest stage of development of ceramic tile production.
Glazed and unglazed tilesis represented by a clinker, which is obtained by extrusion. The raw materials are pressed through the mold, and in some cases the products are produced by pressing.
Double and single firing tiles areProducts that are produced by the oldest method of glazed finish. The clay mixture in the process is pressed, exposed to high temperatures, and then the glaze is applied to the surface, at the final stage the tile is fired a second time.
Ceramic tile, GOST of which periodicallyis updated, it must be resistant to cracking, heat-resistant, frost-resistant and wear-resistant. Norms for the material described are certain indicators that are periodically updated, they are spelled out in standards Nos. 6,141 and 13,996. Among the updated data, the following standards should be singled out:
According to state norms and rules, ceramic tiles should include:
The first ingredient is responsible for the skeleton of products,while clay maintains the plasticity and shape of the material. With regard to carbonates and feldspars, they are responsible for the viscosity of the products, this is what gives the finish density and vitreousity.
The weight of the ceramic tile will change independing on the type of material. The mass is affected by the coefficient of porosity and density. Depending on this, the ceramic tiles can be further subdivided into several types, among them tiles should be highlighted. He is the easiest.
With standard tile sizes that canbe equal to 20x30 or 30x30 cm, the weight of a square meter will vary from 11 to 16 kg. Clinker ceramics are used for finishing the facades. In this case, the weight of a square meter will be equal to the limit of 20 to 30 kg. Buyers are often interested in the weight of ceramic tiles. When it comes to porcelain stoneware, it has a low coefficient of porosity, respectively, a rather impressive mass, which is equal to the limit of 20 to 70 kg per square meter.
Large thick differ sidewalkceramic products, due to this their weight can reach 90 kg per square meter. Depending on what natural stone is used in the manufacture of ceramic pavers, its weight reaches 150 kg per square meter.
Ceramic tiles, the density of which can bedifferent, used for finishing the premises and exterior surfaces of buildings. In the first case it is a question of floor products, and also furnish for walls. It shows all its best operational features in the kitchen and in the corridors, where the surfaces are highly abradable.
The described products are also used for finishingpublic premises, here you should include cafes and shops. Considering the purpose of ceramic tiles, it can also be noted that it is used as a floor and wall cover, but you can also meet this finish when carrying out outdoor work. The most common ceramic tiles are used in the arrangement:
Ceramic tiles, the density of which will bementioned below, should have high quality frost resistance. Such products are pressed enamelled tiles with low water absorption.
Ceramic tiles, the density of which can reach 1400 kg / m3, is presented for sale also in the form of porcelain stoneware. Its specific gravity is 2400 kg / m3. This parameter roughly corresponds to the specificthe weight of the glass. Frost-resistance of this finish acts as one of the important indicators that determines the possibility of using the material outside the premises. Any of the varieties of porcelain stoneware can withstand up to 50 cycles of freezing and thawing. The water absorption of granite is quite low, it is about 3%. However, as practice shows, this parameter varies from 0.05 to 0.5%.
Considering the properties of ceramic tiles, you cannote that it is wear-resistant and resistant to abrasion. The material is frost-resistant, it absorbs moisture in minimum amounts, and among the additional advantages should be allocated resistance to mechanical effects. During use, the material retains color fastness. For laying ceramic tiles on the floor, you can use a rough variety, because slipping is excluded.</ p>>