One of the most useful perennials in theagriculture is an endless fire - an herb that is indispensable as a feed for livestock, and besides, it also enriches the soil with nitrogen, producing it from carbon dioxide consumed by the plant from the air.
Bonfire brome is a ridingRoot grass, the height of which can reach one and a half meters. The stem is smooth, dense with many elongated shoots. The leaves are flat, 4 to 10 mm wide, dark green in color. In cold weather, their color turns pale. The inflorescence in the form of a panicle, whose length is 15-20 cm, consists of large spikelet sizes from 12 to 30 mm. The lower floral scales of violet color have a wide filmy margin. The top of the grain and the ovary are covered with thick pubescence. The flowering period is not long, depends on the weather and lasts a maximum of 2 weeks. Watching this grass in windy weather, you can see how with a tilt in different directions, the panicles gleam red, which is very similar to the flame.
The root system of the plant is quite powerful andreaches two meters in depth. Due to such rhizome, the beetle is able to tolerate any drought, giving high hay yields even in regions where the amount of precipitation is minimal. It is also resistant to long-term flooding.
Most often this plant can be found in Europe,Minor and Northern Asia. In Russia it grows almost everywhere, except for the Arctic and some regions of the Far East. It mainly grows along the banks of rivers, ponds, meadows and thin forests, forming pure thickets. Poorly tolerated by the fire of the neighborhood of plants such as meadow tea, eastern sverbiga, bluegrass and some other representatives of cereals. Positively on its growth there is a sowing in grass mixtures with alfalfa.
Bezosty fire - the grass is rather unpretentious. It grows in places well illuminated by the sun. Soils prefer rather rich in nutrients, well drained. It grows best on loam, sandy loam and dried peat bogs. Soil salinity is unsuitable. On them the bonfire is quickly replaced by grasshoppers. Of great importance for this plant is the permeability of the soil, on dense clays it grows rather poorly. Negatively affects the growth of grass and the proximity of groundwater. Under favorable conditions, the period of economic use can be up to 20 years, in dry places it is quite small and rarely exceeds 6 years.
Although a boneless fire - the grass is drought-resistant,At an air temperature above 38 ° C, its significant burnup occurs. However, dry winds are carried by this plant much better than other cereals. At the beginning of growth, a fire can be suppressed by high-growth crops, but gradually, expanding, it begins to displace many plants, successfully combating weeds.
This culture is resumed with the help ofseeds and vegetatively. The first option under natural conditions is of minimal importance. Despite the fact that the seeds of the grass are formed in a fairly large number (up to 18 thousand per 1 sq. M.), Only a small part of them grows, and the adult state reaches unity.
The possibility of vegetative reproduction occursonly on the fourth year of plant life. The space that the growing root system occupies gradually increases. From fresh shoots, formed by young roots, new plants are formed. Thanks to this method of reproduction, a boneless bonfire - the grass is very hardy and adapted to various unfavorable conditions.
On agricultural land, thisplants produce after sunflower, corn, potatoes. It is best to do this in autumn, although it is possible to sow in spring and summer. With continuous sowing in rows, the seeding rate is up to 7 million seeds (about 25 kg per 1 hectare). On fertile soil, the amount can be slightly reduced to 5 million, and on unfavorable for growth - increased by 1-2 million.
Great value for a crop has not only that,how to sow the grass, but how well it is properly fed. To increase the growth of the vegetative mass, nitrogen fertilizers are of great help, which are introduced annually, in spring, at 50 kg per hectare.
In the first year of plant life it is required to maintaincontrol of weeds. They are pinched 2 or 3 times during the summer. After 2 years, it can be processed by heavy harrows, and on the fourth - by a disc harrow.
A boneless bonfire is a valuable pasture anda haymaking plant capable of yielding a very high yield. Even in arid and unfavorable areas, it can be up to 50 quintals per hectare. Green grass and hay containing nitrogen-free extractives up to 47%, fiber - 21%, protein - 19%, protein - 16%, 9% ash and 3% fat are very nutritious. This plant is eaten with pleasure by animals. It is used both as a feed for cattle, and for fixing the soil in areas prone to flushing, to fix the slopes of ravines.
The boneless bonfire is not badpredecessor for cereals, capable of restoring the fertile soil layer. He perfectly copes with weeds, suppressing them for the second year of his life.
Use boneless brome on pastureit is recommended if certain procedures are followed. It is necessary to sow crops only not earlier than the age of three, when the sod is sufficiently dense. Up to three cycles are carried out, while the above-ground part is alienated no less than 6 cm. Grazing on pastures occupied by this crop is not allowed in autumn. This can lead to the fact that nutrients do not have time to accumulate, as a result, shoots do not form, which leads to a decrease in yields and fodder mass and seeds next year.
Thanks to a large number of useful propertiesA very wide application in agriculture is found in a bonfire. The price for seeds of this plant is small and amounts to 110-120 rubles per 1 kg on average.</ p>>