Deciduous plants of the genus Kashtan from the familybeech castanea sativa, or simply edible chestnuts are widely distributed in the European territory, where they have been cultivated for several centuries for the sake of delicious and nutritious fruits. Due to their endurance and frost resistance, these trees grow even in northern European countries, for example, in the British Isles. However, the ideal conditions for this plant are still regions with a mild climate, where there are no late spring frosts that adversely affect flowering.
The adult plant is characterized by a wide, slenderThe trunk, which covers the gray corrugated bark with vertical or spiral grooves. Its height can reach 35 meters, and diameter - two meters. The shape of the leaves is oblong, oval-pointed, with a jagged margin, and their size is 16-28 cm in length and 5-10 cm in width. In our region, as is known, horse chestnut is common, and many do not know how to distinguish an edible chestnut from inedible. So, it's on the leaves. The plant with inedible fruit has complex palatal leaves, which are located on a common petiole of 5-7 pieces, whereas its noble relative has large and dense single sheets with a glossy coating. The flowering period of chestnut is the first half of summer (late June - early July). At the ends of the branches appear small white flowers, collected in long (10-20 cm) earrings growing in bundles. It is interesting that in one earring contains flowers of both sexes - the upper part of the earring is occupied by male flowers, and the bottom - by women. By autumn, from the female flowers, ripe edible chestnut fruits, having a round shape and covered with a barbed protective shell, protect them from small animals and birds. In October, ripe fruits leave their thorny "house".
Chestnuts eaten perfectly grow on welldrained sand and light fertile soils. They can not tolerate too shaded places and excessively wet, swampy, infertile or calcareous soils. Reproduction of plants is carried out by grafting or seeds, which mature in the middle of autumn. The main enemy of chestnut fruit is the gray protein, so plant trees should be there where this animal is not found. It should be remembered that in regions with very low temperatures, the chestnut will not bear fruit.
The main wealth of Castanea sativa aredelicious starchy nuts. Their nutritional qualities are similar to the properties of wheat, except for the gluten-binding protein - this component is absent in the fruits. Chestnut flour is used in the preparation of dough products to give them a peculiar flavor and friability. In addition, edible chestnuts play the role of raw materials in brewing, and are also an excellent ingredient for cakes and puddings. They are also used as an independent confectionery product, for example, in France roasted candied chestnut nuts are very popular.</ p>>