The modern structure of the world economy and its main features

In order to understand the essence of the worldeconomy, you need to know what the structure of the world economy is. It is a complex dynamic mechanism, consisting of numerous macroeconomic elements.

The structure of the world economy includesbranch and interbranch components, associations, enterprises, regions and complexes. They create the most important proportions in the production and consumption of GDP. The relationship between these components is the economic structure of the world economy. Stable development of the world economy is impossible without an optimally developed economic structure.

In general, the structure of the world economy, as well asits national variety - the concept of a vast and diverse. It includes the following substructures: sectoral, territorial, reproductive, functional and socio-economic.

The territorial structure shows how economic activities are distributed between countries and various territories.

Reproductive structure consists of suchparts, like accumulation, consumption, export. It is a reflection of the state of the national economy, since a bias toward one of the components indicates an incorrect state of affairs in the country's economy. For example, if 100% of production GDP goes only for consumption, this indicates an unstable economic situation in the country. The optimal ratio of consumption / savings / exports will be 70% / 25% / 5%. Such proportions contribute to the development of export-import relations and minimize social tension.

The functional structure reflects the relationshipmilitary and peaceful production, which is very important for the socio-economic situation of the country. Based on world experience, it can be argued that the higher the share of military production, the worse the economic situation in the country. To date, the costs of military production are hampering the development of many countries. The optimal figure for defense spending is 1-2% of GDP. All that is above 6%, leads to the degradation of peaceful production and economic decline.

The socio-economic structure characterizesthe relationship between socio-economic forms of society. The type of way depends on the type of property, there are only a few of them: the communal (without private property), feudal (feudal property), small-commodity (small business) and capitalist (which has a large industry, private capital and monopolies).

The industrial structure of the world economy consists offrom the aggregate of economic units that were formed in the process of division of labor and differ in the conditions of production. Macroeconomic analysis identifies such major groups as industrial, agro-industrial (or agricultural), construction, production and non-productive (services). In turn, these industries can be subdivided into subspecies. For example, industry is divided into extractive and processing.

To date, the world economy and itsstructure is characterized by a predominance of the share of services. In the USA and Great Britain, it reached 80%, in Japan and Canada - 70%, in Germany, Italy and France - about 60%. At the same time, the share of agriculture is declining, and industry is no more than 25-30% of GDP. Such trends are explained by the rapid development of scientific and technological progress, which gave rise to the formation of new industries and services.

Former Soviet countries are located approximatelythe same level of development. The economy of such countries is characterized by a high proportion of agriculture and industry and, accordingly, a low level of services.

In developing countries, the share of agriculture exceeds the share of industry. Their ratio is approximately 20-35% and 10-25% respectively.

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