Rechargeable batteries are used in manyindustries, but the mass consumer is closer to transport equipment. And in the same sphere, the weakest places of such food elements are most clearly manifested. Problems in the process of battery operation are determined by the nuances of ergonomics, maintenance and maintenance of optimum reliability in different application conditions. At the same time, some of the shortcomings could be minimized with the help of Absorbent Glass Mat (AGM) technology back in the 1970s. A new approach to the organization of internal space, also associated with changes in the characteristics of electrolyte, is relevant even today. Moreover, AGM technology for all time of its existence has undergone many adjustments and today it allows developing batteries with fundamentally improved qualities. However, such batteries are also not relieved of shortcomings.
The peculiarity of this technology is due tothe principles of the so-called bound electrolyte. So, if in classical accumulators the liquid electrochemical filling is used as the active substance, then in AGM systems a dense electrolyte is used. Accordingly, this gives at least an increased protection against vibration. In terms of household treatment of such blocks, many note convenience and reliability. But this is not all the features that AGM technology is characterized by. Absorbed electrolyte, which is most often used in such batteries, itself has a lot of advantages. In practice, use is noted for its resistance to temperature and the ability to withstand a large number of charges. Realization of the same concept of bound electrolyte requires a special device of the body and internal filling.
The body is made of high-strengthPlastic, which houses a set of plate-electrodes. As a rule, the latter are made of lead, which is similar to such constructions with classical blocks. The main difference is in the properties of the electrolyte, which is represented by a water-acid solution. It is a kind of acid that fills the enclosure space to provide subsequent reactions between the electrodes. Actually, the difference is due to the fact that the filling is not a liquid but a solid state. Typically, manufacturers use microporous fiberglass based material to provide this condition. It is impregnated with an electrolyte and thus forms a dense bond between the internal components of the block. The filler acts as a separator, preventing the solution from spreading. However, AGM technology can provide for other methods of tight binding of the electrochemical substance, but the essence of the method remains the same - to ensure the reliability of the content of the active element without losing the basic function of the battery.
Models of batteries of this type are manufacturedin a flat or spiral form. This refers to the arrangement of electrodes. Spiral components are characterized by extensive surface electrochemical contact, which in practice contributes to an increase in the ability to provide short-term high currents. In addition, many motorists note the rapid completion of the energy potential. But, on the other hand, models with flat electrodes win in spiral due to the balanced specific capacity of the battery. Similar qualities, by the way, are distinguished by gel blocks and traditional lead-acid ones. AGM technology flat configuration is only optimized, allowing in the established format to provide the highest battery performance.
This is a group of gel batteries that alsoare developed in accordance with the concept of bound electrolyte. Only in this case another principle of providing viscous filling is used. To do this, silica gel is used, completely covering the entire block space. Like AGM technology, the GEL-battery manufacturing technique provides vibration resistance and reliability of the electrochemical filling in general. In this regard, the main advantage of gel batteries is the elimination of the risk of closure. A close fit to the electrodes does not allow them to break down with time, and the electrolyte also effectively copes with its function, interacting through the pores of the filler.
According to the calculations of specialists, this type of modelcapable of withstanding about 1200 charge cycles. Budget devices allow you to fill the charge 500-600 times. Similar indicators are achieved by AGM technology. Advantages and disadvantages of both designs are generally similar and are the features of the interaction of electrodes and electrolyte. But there is also a difference in operational nuances, which are noticeable only in practical applications.
To begin with, it is worth emphasizing that gelThe devices cost more than the AGM models, although this does not indicate their obvious advantage. So, to give preference to designs with absorbed electrolyte is worth those who want to be sure of the stability of the filling to high-power discharges. In addition, such blocks benefit from the rapid replenishment of the energy reserve. At the same time, AGM and GEL technologies retain the charge approximately equally stably - in any case, if we compare models from the general price group. As for the advantages of gel elements, they are better at high loads, for example, after a deep discharge or with external electrical interference. To this can be added the rigidity of the filler, which does not allow physically to destroy the filling, while maintaining the integrity of the same electrode. Gel models in the latest versions are designed to strengthen precisely the strength quality, but progress in this direction is hampered by the inevitable lowering of the electrical properties of the unit.
If we compare the advantages of technology on the wholebackground of storage batteries, the absence of a need for maintenance will come to the fore. Further, it is possible to emphasize the dignity, which extends to all devices performed on the principle of bound electrolyte. This is a hermetically sealed valve-controlled design that minimizes the risk of acid leakage. That is, it speaks about the reliability of the block in terms of physical treatment, and its environmental safety. This property, by the way, characterized by expensive branded batteries, and budget models, poorly manufactured. AGM technology maximizes the protection of the internal filling, which also contributes to the improvement of the efficiency of electrochemical processes. Here again, you can return to a large number of charge cycles, rapid energy recovery and stable operation of the electrodes.
Most of the disadvantagesbatteries of this type extend to all lead-acid devices. For example, this refers to a large weight, to the toxicity of lead oxide, as well as to restrictions on the organization of storage conditions. In particular, manufacturers do not recommend storing blocks in a discharged state. In addition, contrary to popular belief, experienced motorists note that in the conditions of frost, a decrease in performance is manifested. This refers to a voltage fluctuation, which is usually reduced. Also, many point to the impossibility of restoring the element after a deep discharge. This is another point on which AGM technology is inferior in reliability to the development of GEL. However, subject to compliance with even the general rules for the use of such batteries, such troubles can be completely avoided.
To prevent battery sulphatizationit is recommended to always maintain their optimum charge. As the capacity is lost, the working life of the active elements is also reduced. Do not short-circuit the terminals. Although AGM-battery developers are working hard to improve the reliability and functional parts of the case, it is important to observe the correctness of the external connection. By the way, this is especially true for operations, during which AGM accumulators are repaired. Technologies of manufacturing new generation batteries improve the mechanical strength of the case, but taking into account this aspect, it is not necessary to rely too much on the resistance of the plastic used for the shell. The opened battery AGM is no less dangerous than the traditional lead-acid blocks.
Of course, modern batteries with improvedperformance properties are used not only in cars. Products based on AGM technologies are used in energy supply systems, in public service stations, in telecommunications, etc. The possibility of autonomous power supply is also in demand in medicine - to maintain the equipment in emergency situations. But, since AGM technology in batteries does not exclude the use of heavy and toxic metals, manufacturers also impose restrictions on their operation.
The domestic battery market is saturatedmodels of different types, among which are AGM elements. In particular, the initial segment represents products from Ventura, Optima, as well as some modifications from the Stinger line. However, the most high-quality batteries with AGM technology, according to many motorists, are offered by the manufacturers of Delta and Warta. In addition, in the families of these companies, you can find different modifications of the blocks for any requests.
Much depends on the technical characteristics,quality of used materials and capacity, but on average prices vary from 10 to 20 thousand rubles. The cheapest batteries of this type cost about 5-6 thousand. If you buy a model for a car that is demanding for electrical engineering, then you can immediately turn to a segment of 20 thousand. That's how high-quality and reliable AGM batteries are. Technologies for organizing the content of absorbent electrolyte at this price level are most profitable, although they do not exclude the drawbacks typical for the general class.
The emergence of breakthrough technologies in various fieldsoften causes an agiotage in the market, but eventually everything returns to its mainstream and the consumer still prefers traditional products. This is due to the fact that the developers of new solutions in advertising focus on the merits, not always fully disclosing information about the shortcomings. So in this case, but experienced motorists and just experts are well acquainted with the pros and cons of the AGM technology. Lead accumulators, even with dense electrolyte, do not cease to be sensitive to voltage drops, require the same safety measures and are not cheap. Nevertheless, in some cases this option will fully justify itself. AGM batteries meet the requirements of those motorists who are guided by the mechanical strength of the battery, its durability and performance. But to retain these qualities for many years can only be subject to the rules of battery operation.</ p>>