Multifunctionality and design excellencecombines a unique aircraft technology - a plane of vertical take-off and landing. The best minds of Russia, Britain and the United States, with many years of development and further modernization, have created in the competition legendary models. The increase in speed, flight altitude, cargo capacity, and combat characteristics is associated with the constant improvement of a super-powerful jet engine. This is what made the aircraft with vertical take-off the basic basic unit of the world's Air Force.
The very first experimentally created in 1954the technique of vertical take-off and landing was the development of the Model 65 Air Test Vehicle. The designed design consisted of the available units from different aircrafts - the fuselage and vertical tail was borrowed from the airframe, the wings were at the Cessna Model 140A aircraft, and the chassis by the helicopter Bell Model 47. Up to now, modern designers are surprised how the combination of these separate elements could give such a result!
The American company Bell was ready forend of 1953. A month later the first flight took place with a hovering in the air, and six months later - its first free flight. But the modernization of the aircraft did not stop, for another year, testing and testing in the air brought it to the required levels.
The engines located on the sides of the fuselageTurned 90 degrees down, thus creating a lift and traction for the flight. The turbocompressor carried out intensive feeding directly on the air nozzles themselves at the ends of the wing and tail. This ensured the control of the entire aircraft structure in the hang-up mode, while retaining this capability even when driving at low speed.
But soon after the tests Bellrefused to continue working with this project. The first plane with vertical take-off had such a thrust of jet engines that it hardly exceeded its own takeoff mass, although it was excessive for horizontal displacement.
With such characteristics the pilot was difficultkeep the speed in the permissible values, not exceeding the limits of the maximum speed of horizontal flight. Therefore, the perspective of the attention of Americans has shifted to other developments.
In 1992, specially invitedaccredited journalists were surprised by the interest of the leading Western airlines in this technology. Experts noticed the features of the aircraft, which went beyond the standard concepts of combat aircraft. It became obvious that for many years of research, which were conducted in parallel in several countries, the Soviet aircraft will deservedly win the first prize.
It was Yak-141, the only one in the whole world on thatthe moment of a supersonic plane of vertical take-off. He was distinguished by a wide range of combat missions, high speed and unique maneuverability, for which he received world recognition at once.
Americans and Europeans began their development inthis direction in the 60's. At an exhibition in 1961 in Farnborough, only an English company was able to present a worthy result. The future main combat aircraft of the British Air Force, Harrier's vertical take-off fighter, was not only the most interesting, but also the most protected exhibit.
The English did not allow anyone, even their ownallies, and Americans. The only one for whom an exception was made for special merits and contribution to the victory over fascist Germany was the well-known designer of Soviet fighters, AS Yakovlev. He was not only invited, but also acquainted with the possibilities of this technique.
Developments in the USSR at that time reachedcertain successes, but still significantly inferior to the British. Experiments with the invented turbo engine gave designers valuable experience, it became possible to install two turbojet engines on the aircraft. Their nozzles could rotate 90 degrees.
Tester B. Mukhin picked up a plane called Yak-36 into the sky. But it was not a full-fledged combat vehicle yet. In demonstration speeches instead of rockets special models were suspended. After all, for real weapons the plane was not yet ready.
In 1967, before the project team of Yakovlev Central CommitteeThe CPSU has set a task to create an easy plane with vertical take-off. An updated model, called Yak-38, caused a skeptical reaction, even in A. Tupolev. But already in 1974 the first 4 planes were prepared.
A unique engine, equipped with a perfectcontrol system, was created in Russia specifically for a plane with vertical take-off. For the first time in the world, the solution of the afterburner swivel nozzle was found, one that over the decade was worked not only by Soviet but also by foreign aircraft designers. This allowed to complete the cycle of ground tests for the Yak-141 and to send for takeoff. From the first tests he confirmed his best flight characteristics.
The further policy of reducing the cost ofthe defense industry has had its influence. To demonstrate the thaw in foreign economic relations, the government substantially adjusted the production volumes of aircraft carriers. Because of the absence of the basing ships in connection with the withdrawal of aircraft carriers from the Russian fleet after 1987, the development of the Yak-141 ceased.
Despite this, the appearance of the Yak-141 wasan essential step in the aircraft design practice. Russian aircraft with vertical take-off became irreplaceable aircraft technology, and in further upgrades of fighters, scientists largely relied on the results of Yakovlev's many years of work.
Designed by A.A. Mikoyan Russian fighter of the fourth generation MiG-29 combines the best characteristics for conducting air combat missiles at medium and short range.
Simple enough to operate. Entering the arsenal of the Air Force in 1982, the MiG-29 became the main fighter of the Russian Air Force. In addition, more than 25 countries bought over a thousand aircraft.
Always thorough in the matter of defense, the Americans also succeeded in creating powerful fighters.
Named for the predatory bird HarrierIt was created as a multipurpose and light attack aircraft to support ground forces from the air, combat and carry out reconnaissance. Due to its excellent characteristics it is also used in the Spanish and Italian Navy.
Became the first Brit in his classvertical take-off and landing Hawker Siddeley Harrier made a prototype of the Anglo-American version of the AV-8A Harrier in 1978. The joint work of the designers of the two countries improved it to the second generation attack aircraft of the Harrier family.
In 1975, the successor to the project of EnglandDue to the inability of management to withstand the financial budget comes the company McDonnell Douglas. The measures taken to thoroughly modify the AV-8A Harrier allowed the production of the AV-8B fighter.
The model was further improved byaerodynamics and thus created the best plane with vertical take-off of the USA. Equipping with a renewed Pegasus engine enabled vertical takeoff and landing. The AV-8B entered the arsenal of the US infantry in early 1985.
Developments did not stop, and in laterAV-8B (NA) and AV-8B Harrier II Plus models were equipped with equipment for nightly combat operations. Further improvement made him one of the best representatives of the fifth-generation vertical takeoff aircraft - Harrier III.
Mastery of aerobatics and uniquecharacteristics are now demonstrated not only by fighters, but also by passenger liners. Boeing 787 Dreamliner is a wide-body twin-engine jet passenger Boeing with vertical take-off.
Over the civilian design of an airplane withvertical take-off and landing, which does not need a take-off platform, Russian designers successfully work. It can function effectively on different types of fuel, based both on land and on water.
Has a wide range of applications:
Possible users may be MES and rescue services, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, medical services and ordinary commercial organizations.
New planes with vertical take-off are able to fly at altitudes up to 10 km, developing a speed of up to 800 km / h.
The capabilities of the new generation of this aircraft are designed for use even in confined spaces: in the city, in the forest, if necessary even in emergency situations.
The circle made by the screw of such an airplane,is considered its bearing area. The lifting force is created by rotating the rotor, which uses the air from above, and directs it downward. As a result, a reduced pressure is created above the area, and under it is increased pressure.
Designed by analogy with a helicopter, according toessence, being its more advanced and adapted to different conditions the model, it is capable of vertical takeoff, landing, as well as hovering in one place.
Achievements of aircraft designers in this exampleconfirmed that higher technologies and a plane with vertical takeoff can be equally useful and in demand both for government purposes and in civilian ones.
In the era of the Cold War, the world's leading powerswere carried away by the projects of creating a combat aircraft, which would not require traditional airfields. This was due to the slight vulnerability of such facilities with deployed aircraft for the enemy. In addition, the expensive take-off strip was not guaranteed to be protected. This period is considered the most important stage in the development of aircraft construction.
Western and domestic strategies for30 years have zealously modernized the plane of vertical take-off and landing, having achieved perfection in fighters of the fifth generation. And the basic technologies taken into service allow civilian use of long-term developments of the world's leading aircraft designers.</ p>>