What is a stepper motor, what are its advantages?

The stepping motor is aan electromechanical device that converts the electric pulse into a discrete mechanical movement. This mechanism is practically no different from other electric motors. Often the device of this part includes a stepper motor controller, shaft and terminals. All this is combined into a large round (rarely rectangular) body.

stepper motor
Application area

Stepper motor can be used in the mostdiverse industries. Most often, such motors are found on industrial equipment and electronic office devices, such as fax machines, printers and disk drives.

Now several types of these engines are produced, so that it works correctly, each mechanism must choose its own scheme and the principle of the driver.


First, the stepping motor is very reliable inoperation. This is due to the fact that in its design there are no graphite brushes, which are often used in automobile generators and have a short service life. Control of the stepper motor is carried out by the bearings, so how much they will work, so much will the motor be serviceable. Secondly, this mechanism is characterized by positioning without feedback. This is achieved due to the dependence of the position of the part on the input pulses. Thirdly, the stepper motor is one of the few devices that provide a quick start, stop and reversal of the entire system. In this case, the motor provides the full torque in the stop mode. Also this motor is characterized by precision repeatability and positioning. Modern engines operate with an accuracy of 3-4 percent of the step size, and the error does not accumulate during their work from step to step.

stepper motor control


There are too many minuses for this device, howeverless than the benefits. Of the main drawbacks, it should be noted that fact that these motors are characterized by the phenomenon of resonance. They can also lose control of position due to the operation without feedback. At high speeds, the stepper motor is not very efficient, although in normal operation it does not differ in power. By the way, even without being under load, it still absorbs electricity, and in the same amount as before when working. Due to the complex control circuit, this device is difficult to repair yourself.

stepper motor controller

What is the difference between a stepper motor and servomotors?

Do not confuse these two mechanisms. Despite the fact that both have a similar device and the principle of operation, in many respects they differ among themselves. The main difference lies in the fact that the stepping motor can provide 1 rotor revolution for a certain number of steps. In this case, this device is characterized by its smoothness and synchronous rotation. Servomotors have in their design special feedback sensors that determine the speed and position of the device for the control system. As such, it provides a resolver or encoder.

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